The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term, in keeping with the Malian constitution's two-term limit.


Head of State: President Amadou Toumani TOURE
Government Type: republic
Independence: 1960 September 22 (from France)
Constitution: (adopted 1992 January 12)

National Holiday: Independence Day, 22 September


Administrative Divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 18 March 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6% Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Party Leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]


Malian Geography

Location of Mali: Western Africa
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 1,240,000 sq km 
Region: Western African Land Area Land: 1,220,000 sq km
Capitol City: Bamako Land Area Water: 20,000 sq km
Latitude: 017 00 N Border Boundary Land: 7,243 km
Longitude: 004 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 4.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 1,155 m Location: Hombori Tondo
Lowest Elevation: 23 m Location: Senegal River
Largest City in Mali: Bamako Bamako Largest City Population: 1,083,000
Threatened Species: 0
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Irrigated Land: 1,380
Bordering Countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Natural Resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited


Geographical Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast


Mali's Geography: landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan


Malian climate

General Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Natural Hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding


Malian Economy

Economic Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01.
GDP: $9,200,000,000 USD Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
GDP per Capita: $840 USD Currency Code: XOF
GDP Growth Rate: -1.20 %  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
GDP of Agriculture: 45.00 % GDP of Industry: 17.00 %
GDP of Services: 38.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 4.50 % Population in Poverty: 64.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 19.90 % Tourism: 87,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.80 % Budget Revenue in USD: $764,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 40.40 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $828,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 462,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 429,660,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 43.29% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 56.71% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
External Debt: $3,300,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $596,400,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Primary Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial Growth Rate: 0.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $600,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
Import Partners: Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux
Export Amount in USD: $575,000,000 USD - cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock
Export Partners: Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7%
GINI Index: 50.50%
Labor Force Number of People: 3,930,000

Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture and fishing 80%


Malian Communications

Radio Broadcast Stations: 30 Number of People with Radios: 570,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 1 Number of People with Televisions: 45,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 45,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 40,000
Internet Service Providers: 13 Internet Users: 10,000
Internet Country Code: .ml Newspapers: 1
Two Letter Country Code: ML Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +223 Electricity Voltage: Volts

Telephone Systems: general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) 


Malian People

Population: 11,340,480 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 48.37 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 9.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 18.32 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 2.97% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 6.73 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 2,687,998 Population Female 0-14: 2,658,605
Population Male 15-64: 2,698,789 Population Female 15-64: 2,950,276
Population Male 65+: 160,604 Population Female 65+: 184,208
Population 0-14: 47.20% Literacy Rate: 38.00%
Population 15-64: 49.80% Literacy rate of Males: 45.00%
Population 65+: 3.00% Literacy rate of Females: 31.00%
Population that is Male: 48.00 % Population that is Female: 52.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 47.39 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 119.63 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 46.18 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 48.64 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 1.70% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 140,000
  Number of people who died of AIDS: 9,900
Disease Risk: 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.35
Nationality: MALIAN
Ethnic Groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5% 
Primary Language: Bambara
Other Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Primary Religion: Muslim

Other Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%


Mali Facts | Republic of Mali Information | Mali Statistics
Mali Facts | Republic of Mali Information | Mali